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It indicates the electric current (I). It is defined as the charge carried by one ampere in one second. It is given by the following formula: I = q/t. Intensity (Ampere) = Electric charge (Coulomb) / Time (seconds)
Alternating Current is an ordered movement of charges whose motion is periodic and whose average intensity in the period of oscillation is zero. This type of regime characterizes the whole process of generation, transmission and distribution of electricity.
It is the symbol of aluminum: a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic and ductile metal, produced from the ore bauxite.
Acronym for Artificial Intelligence. It indicates a discipline belonging to computer science that studies the theoretical foundations, methodologies, and techniques that allow the design of hardware and software systems, equipped with autonomous learning and adaptation capabilities, inspired by human learning models.
Acronym for Air-Insulated Switchgear. See switchgear.
Arc-resistant or arc-proof:
The electric arc is a conduction phenomenon through dielectric material (including air or SF6 gas) between two parts with different potential. This phenomenon can be voluntary (electric arc furnace) or involuntary (electrical discharge also disruptive). In order to protect the operators of the electrical sector, the electric arc withstand is defined, this is the ability, verified through the electric arc withstand test, of an equipment (for example the medium voltage switchboard) to hold the energy released by the electric arc inside it without projecting dangerous objects towards the operator. The harmful gases released by the melting of the materials that occurs during the electric arc phenomenon are vented through special piping systems, in order to avoid damage to health.
The ATR is a Medium-Voltage, air-insulated metal-enclosed switchgear, produced by C.R. Technology Systems.
The ATR-Ring is a Medium-Voltage, gas-insulated metal-enclosed switchgear, produced by C.R. Technology Systems
Automation means the use of technology in plants aiming to managing machinery and processes through control systems and allowing data collection, integrating or replacing the actions of man.
Bar (or busbar):
Bar or busbar is a rigid conductor under different forms: parallelepiped, tube, with or without folds and holes. There can be different bars, accordingly to its task in the electrical system:
– Direct conduction bars (connecting bars between generation and transformation or users).
– Bus bars (bars that distribute and centralize energy from multiple users or production sources)
– Node bars (particular busbars usually used for earthing systems, represent a common potential node)
Power and accessory systems servile to an electric line or to a transformer that connect the line or transformer with the busbar system of an electric station.
The Balance of Plant is a system designed to guarantee all the services and the efficiency of the main process. In order to understand this concept, an example may be useful: within the electricity production the BOP is made up of all the components necessary for the correct functioning of the power plant (medium-voltage switchgear, low-voltage switchboard, SCADA system, cooling and lighting system, emergency plant, etc.) with the exception of the generator and the step-up transformer which are the production core and the main process to which the BOP is aimed.
Acronym for Balance Of System. It is a term generally referred to photovoltaic and wind systems, used to express the percentage of energy losses that occur in the system due to various factors, such as the coupling between the various PV modules, the connections with the converters, the losses in the electrical panels, conductors, etc. Generally for small plants and in the absence of detailed information, a B.O.S. equal to 15% and to obtain a good approximation of the annual productivity, for larger plants it is necessary a careful study accompanied by good experience.
Carport (Photovoltaic carport):
Photovoltaic carports are parking areas covered by structures whose roof is made up of photovoltaic panels. They do not require additional land, thus offering a highly efficient use of space.
A Carbon FootPrint is the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by an individual, event, organization, service, or product, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent. (Wikipedia)
An electric vehicle charging station, or electric recharging point, is an infrastructure that supplies electricity for the recharging of plug-in electric vehicles, including electric cars and plug-in hybrids.
Circuit-Breaker (Automatic circuit-breaker):
An automatic circuit-breaker is a device with one or more poles able to open and extinguish fault and overload currents inside it. Depending on the type of circuit-breaker and the voltage level, the actuator and the control of the circuit-breaker can be either joint (LV) or separate (MT), in this case the switch (actuator) must always be accompanied by the appropriate relay (command and control).
The Combiner-Box is a device that combines the output of multiple strings of photovoltaic modules for connection to the inverter. A combiner can also include disconnect devices, overcurrent devices and remote monitoring devices.
Connection to a network of an electrical system for which there is circuit continuity, without the interposition of third-party electrical systems, with the network itself.
Electric current is an ordered motion of charges, its intensity is measured in Amperes.
Direct Current is an ordered movement of charges whose motion is constant over time and whose average intensity is constant. This type of regime characterizes electronic devices and solid storage systems (batteries, cells, etc.).
A Distributed Control System is a computerized control system for a process or plant usually with many control loops, in which autonomous controllers are distributed throughout the system, but there is no central operator supervisory control. (Wikipedia)
Delivery cabinet :
The delivery substation is a secondary electrical substation for the interfacing between the distribution grid and the user system. Inside the delivery cabinet, is present the energy delivery point to the user or to the grid with an attached tax meter.
The Digital transformation indicates a set of changes, mainly technological, cultural, organizational, social, and managerial, associated with the applications of digital technology, in various areas of society.
A disconnector, or isolator switch, is a device installed into an electrical circuit used in electrical substations to allow isolation of apparatus such as circuit breakers, transformers, and transmission lines. It can be either loaded, thus it can be operated under voltage, or vacuum insulated, meaning it can be operated only in conditions of absence of voltage. Disconnectors can be manual, or motor operated.
Distributed Generation (DG) :
Distributed generation refers to the production of energy in small electrical units, usually with a power range between 15 and 10,000 kW, located in several points of the territory and connected directly to the electricity distribution network. It is therefore a decentralized production, which differs from the traditional centralized model. The latter consists in energy generation concentrated in a few large power plants connected to the electricity transmission grid. The distributed generation is mostly represented by generation from renewable sources, such as wind and photovoltaic.
An E-House, or Electrical House, is a compact and transportable substation, designed to house medium (MV) and low-voltage (LV) electrical equipment and automation systems.
The Transition consists in an implementation of the sustainable development concept. In the face of an ecological crisis, climate change, and the depletion of natural resources, alternatives are being developed to ensure the resilience of our society.
The topic of sustainable development is the main goal of the Agency 2030 of the United Nations, including its economic, social, and environmental dimensions.
Mainly, urgent ecological measures are intended to contrast climate changes, safeguard oceans, seas and marine resources, protect forests, and reduce CO2 emissions until carbon neutrality.
It is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. Between the generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels. (Wikipedia)
The energy transition is a transformation process from fossil-based to zero-carbon in the energy sector, to be achieved by 2050. At its heart is the need to reduce energy-related CO emissions to limit climate change.
C.R. Technology Systems Engineering Hub is the R&D team, who focuses on the research of new products and technologies that ensure cutting-edge and high-quality results.
Acronym for Engineering Procurement and Construction. The EPC is a type of contract in which a client (General Contractor) carries out a turnkey work, following the whole project: engineering services, procurement of materials and construction.
The Factory Acceptance Test evaluates the equipment by verifying that it is constructed and operating in accordance with design specifications. It assesses that the components and controls are working properly according to the functionality of the equipment itself.
The field cabinet is a particular centralization cabinet. The term is often used in photovoltaic systems to identify the cabinet containing the power inverter, low-voltage switchboards and medium-voltage switchgears of the system and possibly connecting to the grid. According to the size of the plant, there may be one or more field cabinets, also interconnected with each other.
An electric generator is a machine capable of transforming other energy sources (chemical, mechanical, kinetic) into electrical energy. Not all transformations are reversible, however generating machines are always reversible.
Acronym for Gas-Insulated Switchgear. See switchgear.
It occurs when an alternative energy source can generate power at a levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) that is less than or equal to the price of power from the electricity grid. The term is most commonly used when discussing renewable energy sources. (Wikipedia)
Acronym for High Voltage. Nominal voltage conventionally higher than 30kV and lower than or equal to 380kV.
Hz - Hertz:
Frequency. It indicates how many times a repeating event occurs within a given time lapse, equal to 1 second.
Acronym for Internal Arc Classification, in conformity with the IEC 62271-200 standards. This certification indicates that the electrical switchgear can be safely operated electrically and/or mechanically, without compromising the internal arc classification of the switchgear and endangering the operator.
The Intelligent Electric Devices are devices that receive data from sensors and electrical equipment and are able to send control inputs, such as the intervention on automatic and manual circuit-breakers in the event of voltage, current or frequency anomalies, or alteration of voltage levels.
It refers to the Integrated Management System (IMS), which represents the sole direction of the ISO standards on quality, environment and safety at work. This grouping of ISOs enables a continuous improvement process to be implemented, which includes:
– ISO 9001:2015 Quality Management System
– ISO 14001:2015 Environmental Management System
– ISO 45001:2018 Occupational Health and Safety Management System
An insulator is an electrical component with the function of isolating, therefore preventing contact, between parts with different potential. Therefore, an essential condition for the existence of electrical systems is that the parts with different potential never come into direct contact. There are several different types of insulators, including:
– Load-bearing insulators, whose task is to support equipment, conductors etc.
– Amar insulators, whose task is to fix and support the power lines in the air.
– Tie rod insulators, placed on the conductors of the lines, guarantee low-voltage areas.
An inverter is a bidirectional electronic power converter capable of modifying the nominal conditions of the input quantity (expressed in voltage and current) transforming them into the needed ones. More than one converter may be required to complete a transformation. They are large used in electric traction, in energy conversion and electricity generation, both classic and from renewable sources.
Internet of Things (acronym for IoT) indicates the technological development whereby, through the Internet, potentially every object of daily experience acquires its own identity in the digital world. The IoT is based on the idea of “intelligent” objects interconnected in order to exchange information held, collected and/or processed. (Osservatori.net Digital Innovation)
It refers to the international standard for Quality Management Systems (QMS), published by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). The standard, last updated in 2015, certifies that a company creates and provides products and services according to a series of rules regarding policies, processes, documented procedures and registrations.
Identifies a technical standard of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) on Environmental Management Systems (EMS) that establishes the requirements of an environmental management system of any organization. It was updated in 2015.
It specifies principles, requirements and guidelines for the quantification and reporting of the carbon footprint of a product (CFP). It was updated in 2018.
It indicates the Occupational Health and Safety Management System, as specified in the technical standard of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It was updated in 2018.
Equal to 1.000 Volt. See Volt.
A Local Area Network (LAN) refers to a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area, for example a house, school or office building.
Luminous flux indicates the quantity of visible light emitted by a source per unit of time.
Acronym for Low Voltage. Rated voltage lower than or equal to 1kV in alternating current, or 1.5kV in direct current.
Illuminance measures the intensity, as perceived by the human eye, of light that hits or passes through a surface.
Operations and interventions aimed at maintaining or restoring the efficiency and proper functioning of electrical systems, in consideration of the decline in performance over time.
Magnelis® is a flat carbon steel coated on both sides with a zinc-aluminum-magnesium alloy.
An MCC (Motor Control Center) is a low-voltage switchboard, whose equipment for the protection and management of the system electrical motors is located inside. It is a versatile and modular structure designed for simple integration of new components and for easy maintenance.
It refers to a panel classified as LSC2B service continuity class.
The mobile substation is a turn-key solution for realizing one or more transportable line or transformation bays, as all parts are mounted on semi-trailers or skids.
Acronym for Medium Voltage. Nominal voltage conventionally higher than 1kV and lower than or equal to 52kV.
The Normal Clad is a C.R. Technology Systems medium-voltage switchgear. See switchgear.
Acronym for Operation and Maintanance. Activities aimed at preventing the aging of the plant, through constant monitoring of system data, implementation of ordinary maintenance plans and corrective and preventive interventions.
The Ohm is the unit of measurement of electrical resistance. One ohm is equal to the resistance of a conductor and it is crossed by a current of 1 Ampere when a potential difference of 1 Volt is applied to its ends.
Force and pressure. It is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed and it is equal to one newton per square metre (N/m2). It assumes central importance in mechanical design, while it is usually replaced by the Bar for fluids.
Photovoltaic control room :
The smart management of energy data is made possible thanks to their 24/7 monitoring from a remote control room, which allows the supervision of photovoltaic systems 24 hours a day, guaranteeing a preventive approach, aimed at the immediate resolution and prevention of system problems.
The Programmable Logic Controller is a programmable electric device integrated in an automation system and specialized in the monitoring of industrial processes that elaborates digital signs from the sensors present in the plant, in order to control the processes through actuators connected to it.
Plug & play:
A plug and play solution refers to technologies that can be installed into a hardware or software system without the need for a specific installation or configuration procedure.
The Power Plant Controller, often integrated into photovoltaic plants, is a system capable of monitoring the instantaneous power that coordinated the energy supplied by the various Power Unit (PU) present in the system.
A Public–Private Partnership is a cooperative arrangement between public and private sectors, typically of a long-term nature, that work together to complete a project and to provide services to the population.
One of the min documents in a PPP project is the Project Financing (PF): a long-term financing technique able to generate income.
It indicates preventive maintenance which, through the use of models and mathematical calculations, aims to prevent faults in a system. To this end, various methods are used, for example tribological analyzes on lubricants, the measurement of vibrations, the monitoring of the conditions of an asset, through the application of specific sensors.
Public lighting is represented by the set of objects (street lamps, light towers, spotlights, etc.) designed to illuminate public spaces. The costs of these plants are borne by the entity which owns them.
Abbreviation for photovoltaic. The term “photovoltaic” is composed of the Greek word “phos” for “light” and “volt”. A photovoltaic system allows the generation of electricity using the sunlight.
The pyranometer is a measuring instrument of solar radiation that is based on the thermopile principle, more specifically on the “seeback” effect. This allows to correctly measure all the weather variables that influence the performance of the system, so that operators can control their investment.
The Euro-P&C is a low-voltage electrical switchboard. See switchboard
A relay is an electrically operated switch. It consists of a set of input terminals for a single or multiple control signals, and a set of operating contact terminals. (Wikipedia)
The retrofit is a solution aimed at implementing new technologies or features into an existing systems, thus extending its lifecycle.
RFID, the acronym for RadioFrequency IDentification, indicates a technology for measuring using radio signals. In the field of electricity distribution, sensors based on RFID technology are used for wireless monitoring of the temperature inside an electrical switchgear.
The acronym RTU stands for Remote Terminal Unit and it denotes an electronic microprocessor control device that interfaces objects from the physical world to a distributed control system or a SCADA system. The RTU plays a role similar to the PLC, however the RTU is designed to work even in rural areas and under adverse ambient conditions, while the PLC is designed for the industrial environment.
Acronym for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. It is a software used for the monitoring and supervision of systems.
The Euro-SDS is a low-voltage electrical switchboard. See switchboard.
Secondary electrical substation:
A secondary electrical substation is an electrical workshop connected to categories I and II electrical systems (low and medium voltage), intended for at least one of the following functions: transformation, conversion, regulation or sorting of electrical energy.
Sendzimir process (named after Tadeusz Sendzimir) is used to galvanize a steel strip by using a small amount of aluminum in the zinc bath and producing a coating with essentially no iron-zinc alloy. (Wikipedia)
A vehicle that can not count on its own propulsion, towed by another vehicle equipped with an engine. In mobile substations, it houses electrical components such as transformers or electrical shelters.
Smart grid is a strongly meshed electrical system in which intelligent systems for energy management and control are integrated. In smart grids, measuring instruments are replaced by intelligent sensors and distributed generation increases its presence and importance. The distribution nodes in the smart grids are managed and monitored in order to predict energy needs and coordinate the storage systems and centralized generation.
A Solar Container is a current generator powered by solar energy. It is a turn-key solution, pre-assembled in house, thus granting short installation and commissioning times.
Italian acronym for Sistema di Protezione, Comando e Controllo (Protection, Command and Control System) refers to the control devices of the primary system present in an electrical substation. These devices have the objective of collecting status signals and anomaly alarms in the electrical components, in order to protect the primary system through automatic and manual maneuvering commands and communicate with remote control centers.
Acronym for Substation. See electrical substation.
Stainless steels are characterized by a high resistance to oxidation and corrosion, especially in humid environments.
The STC-Box is a compact and modular electrical substation for primary and secondary distribution, realized by C.R. Technology Systems.
The STC-Kiosk is a compact and modular electrical substation for secondary distribution, realized by C.R. Technology Systems.
The String-Box is a field panel that monitors the string currents within a photovoltaic system and promptly diagnoses any anomalies.
It is a set of devices, equipment and management and control logics, designed to store electricity to make it available in times of need, through intelligent management of energy flows, both incoming and outgoing. This system can be integrated into various applications, including photovoltaic systems and plants powered by other renewable sources.
The low voltage switchboard represents the terminal part of the electrical distribution system. It houses the automatic protection systems (switches or fuses and disconnectors) designed to protect the loads and / or people from electrical faults. In some panels it is also possible to find the control of user loads.
The medium voltage switchgear consists of several units, also called panels or cells. Inside there are automatic switches, disconnectors and fuses that allow the protection and disconnection of equipment powered by electricity.
It indicates the company that deals with the integration of systems, allowing different systems to communicate with each other, with the aim of creating a new functional structure that can synergistically use the potential of the original systems and thus creating features that were not originally present.
Acronym for Testo Integrato delle Connessioni Attive (Integrated Text of Active Connections). Integrated text of the technical and economic conditions for connection to the electricity grids with the obligation to connect third parties to the electricity production plants, estimate for connection to the national grid.
Transformation cabins consist of a set of conductors, machines, and equipment that transform the voltage present in the medium voltage lines into the correct values for the low voltage lines.
A transformer is a passive electrical device that transfers electrical energy from one electrical circuit to another, or multiple circuits. A varying current in any one coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic flux in the transformer’s core, which induces a varying electromotive force across any other coils wound around the same core. (Wikipedia)
In a “turnkey” project, the product or service is provided to the customer complete with everything necessary to be fully and immediately used, without the need for additional interventions to be used.
A unifilar is an electrical diagram that represents an electrical circuit through conventional symbols. A single wire shows a line with two or more conductors.
Electrical Potential Difference (V). It is defined as the work needed per unit of charge to move a test charge between the two points.
Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) describes a system in which plug-in electric vehicles, such as battery electric vehicles (BEV), plug-in hybrids (PHEV) or hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), communicate with the power grid to sell demand response services by either returning electricity to the grid or by throttling their charging rate. V2G storage capabilities can enable EVs to store and discharge electricity generated from renewable energy sources such as solar and wind, with output that fluctuates depending on weather and time of day. (Wikipedia)
Apparent power: it is defined, only for alternating quantities, as the power of a current with an effective value of 1A flowing through a circuit at a voltage with an effective value of The apparent power contains within it the concept of active and reactive power, which is why it is the characteristic rated power of the equipment.